In October 1998 someone posted to the usenet group talk.origins the question as to whether is life on other planets. I had a go at answering.
By Quentin Langley
Dateline: 05 October 1998
Interesting question. I will try to answer it in general terms from
both religious and scientific points of view.
Some revealed religions, such as Roman Catholicism, have an ongoing source of revelation - the church - which can speak authoritatively and even infallibly, on questions such as this. However, I am not aware that any Pope has ever expressed an opinion on this topic, let alone pronounced ex-Cathedra.
Other revealed religions believe that revelation has closed. Protestants usually accept that there has been no divine revelation since the Bible and Muslims that there has been none since the Koran. For all the influence within Islam of certain clerics none has the authority of a prophet, for Allah's last and greatest prophet was Mohammed. Neither scripture mentions extra- terrestrial life.
In science absence of evidence is not usually taken as evidence of absence, unless you have looked exhaustively in all the places that you would expect to find evidence. For the follower of a revealed religion, divinely inspired scripture IS where you would expect to find evidence. So the lack of any mention in the Bible, the Koran or - as far as I am aware - any other significant religious text, of life on other planets might be interpreted as indicative, though not absolute, evidence that there is none. Why would God not mention it if it were there?
For a scientist or a sceptic, evidence is required to resolve the matter either way. We have not looked closely at any planets outside this solar system. Indeed we have only recently been able to authoritatively DETECT planets outside this solar system. And those that we have detected are not at all like Earth. One like Earth is far too small for us to find.
We have examined Mars, and found no indications that intelligent life has ever existed there. But we have not been able to look in real detail. Given what we know now, it would be surprising to find intelligent life on Mars. It would be fairly surprsing to find it anywhere in this solar system. But we have not proved its absence, and there are clear indications that microscopic life probably does exist in space, and may be the source of life on Earth.
Beyond this solar system, we honestly don't know.
Some people have tried to calculate the odds of life existing elsewhere, but it depends on your assumptions. Some have calculated that it is very likely others that it is virtually impossible. The fact is we have no idea how many planets there are in the Galaxy; whether a planet is necessary to sustain life; what other factors may be necessary; or what caused life on Earth.
You can't reason from one example.
So, depending on your own philosophical bent, the answer is either: a) ask the Pope; b) probably not or c) no idea.
Of course, if life was definitively discovered, the event would have far reaching consequences. Every other scientific discovery that has shown man to something other than the centre of god's creation - heliocentrism for example , or evolution - has been bitterly opposed by the churches, and generally weakened their grip on society.
Copyright (c) Quentin Langley 05 October 1998